Today we’re going to talk about titles of works (movies, books, articles, and more) and whether they should be in italics or quotation marks. You’ll learn the rules in The Chicago Manual of Style, which is the style guide people who edit books use. The Associated Press Stylebook, which is the style guide newspapers use, has a different set of rules. If you want to learn those rules, you can find a quick guide here.
Books, newspapers, and magazines
Titles of books, newspapers, and magazines should be italicized.
I heard that the book A History of Princess Crowns is fascinating.
The astronaut had a subscription to the newspaper Mars Daily.
Marsha likes the magazine Cats Monthly because it has cute photos.
Articles and chapters
Titles of articles in newspapers or magazines and chapter titles in books should be in quotation marks.
Did you read the article “Fun with Flesh-eating Bacteria” in the magazine?
My favorite chapter in the book was “Germs are gross.”
Movies, television shows, radio programs, and plays
Titles of movies, television shows, radio programs, and plays should be italicized.
The gardener’s favorite movie is the documentary Plants Are Awesome.
The scientist watches the television show World’s Weirdest Germs every Tuesday night.
Sally’s mom loved listening to the radio show Stuff Old People Like.
The little girl’s favorite play was Cute, Fuzzy Animals in the Forest.
Poems and songs
Titles of poems and songs should be in quotation marks.
In high school, Sally wrote a poem called “Johnny Is Cute.”
She also wrote a song called “I Think I’m in Love with Johnny.”
Test your skills with this quiz. Look at the titles in bold and choose whether they should be italicized or in quotation marks. The answers are at the bottom.
1. The most popular article in today’s City Tribune is Boy Rescues Cat from Tree.
2. Francis worked all week on his song That Jerk Stole my Heart.
3. Lacy was sad because she missed Sassy Girls’ Island on television last night.
4. Did you get to the chapter Workouts for the Lazy Man in the book The Lazy Man’s Guide to Life?
5. I tried not to fall asleep during the play The Calm and the Quiet because it was really boring.
6. Steve had to read the poem The Cat Eats Rats for school.
7. After Frank heard the movie review for Car Crashes and Blood on the radio show Watch these Movies, he couldn’t wait to see it.
1. italics, quotation marks 2. quotation marks 3. italics 4. quotation marks, italics 5. italics 6. quotation marks 7. italics, italics
Erin Servais is happy to italicize your title. Learn how to hire her for your next project today: dotanddashllc.com
copy editing, style issues
Chicago Manual of Style, copy editing, italics, literature, pop culture, quotation marks, titles of works
Adoor Gopalakrishnan is an Indianfilm director, script writer, and producer. Adoor Gopalakrishnan had a major role in revolutioning Malayalam cinema during the 1970s and is regarded as one of the most notable filmmakers of India. Adoor's first film Swayamvaram (1972, script by K.P Kumaran the director of one of the best Indian film " Athidhi ".) pioneered the new wave cinema movement in Kerala along with " Olavum Theeravum " (1970) and " Athidhi "(1974). Most of his films go to festivals around the world, and are released in Kerala. All the eleven films he directed, from Swayamvaram to Oru Pennum Randaanum (2008), were screened at several international film festivals and won him several national and international awards. He won National Film Awards 16 times, Kerala State Film Awards 17 times and also won several international film awards. He won the prestigious British Film Institute Award for Elippathayam (1981). Adoor received the Padma Shri in 1984 and the Padma Vibhushan in 2006. The Nation honoured Adoor for his valuable contributions to Indian cinema by awarding him the highest cinema award of India, the Dadasaheb Phalke Award for the year 2004.
Gopalakrishnan was born on 3 July 1941 in the village of Mannadi ( Medayil Bungalow ) near Adoor, present day Kerala, India as the son of Madhavan Unnithan and Mouttathu Gauri Kunjamma. He started his artistic life as an actor in amateur plays when he was 8. Later he shifted his base to writing and direction and wrote and directed a few plays. After securing a degree in Economics, Political Science and Public Administration in 1961 from the Gandhigram Rural Institute, he worked as a Government officer near Dindigul in Tamil Nadu . In 1962, he left his job to study screenwriting and direction from the Pune Film Institute. He completed his course from there with a scholarship from the Government of India. With his classmates and friends, Adoor established Chithralekha Film Society and Chalachithra Sahakarana Sangham; the organization was the first film society in Kerala and it aimed at production, distribution and exhibition of films in the co-operative sector.
Adoor has scripted and directed eleven feature films and about thirty short films and documentaries. Notable amongst the non-feature films are those on Kerala’s performing arts.
Adoor's debut film, the national award winning Swayamvaram (1972) was a milestone in Malayalam film history. The film was exhibited widely in various international film festivals including those held in Moscow, Melbourne, London and Paris. The films that followed namely Kodiyettam, Elippathayam, Mukhamukham, Anantaram,Mathilukal, Vidheyan and Kathapurushan lived up to the reputation of his first film and were well received by critics at various film festivals and fetched him many awards. However, Mukhamukham was criticized in Kerala while Vidheyan was at the centre of a debate due to the differences in opinion between the writer of story of the film Sakhariya and Adoor.
Adoor's later films are Nizhalkuthu, narrating the experiences of an executioner who comes to know that one of his subjects was innocent, and Naalu Penungal, a film adaptation of four short stories by Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai.
All his films have won national and international awards (National award for best film twice, best director five times, and best script two times. His films have also won his actors and technicians several national awards). Adoor’s third feature, Elippathayam won him the coveted British Film Institute Award for 'the most original and imaginative film' of 1982. The International Film Critics Prize (FIPRESCI) has gone to him six times successively for Mukhamukham, Anantharam, Mathilukal, Vidheyan, Kathapurushan and Nizhalkkuthu. Winner of several international awards like the UNICEF film prize (Venice), OCIC film prize (Amiens), INTERFILM Prize (Mannheim) etc., his films have been shown in Cannes, Venice, Berlin, Toronto, London, Rotterdam and every important festival around the world.
In consideration of his contribution to Indian cinema, the nation honoured him with the title of Padma Shri(India's fourth highest civilian award) in 1984 and Padma Vibhushan(India's second highest civilian award) in 2006.
Adoor is settled in Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) in Kerala. His daughter Aswathi Dorje is an IPS officer (part of the Assam cadre, 2000 batch), currently acting as Deputy Commissioners of Police in Mumbai since June 2010.
Documentaries and 'New Cinema' movement
Apart from nine feature films, he has over 30 short films and documentaries to his credit. The Helsinki Film Festival was the first film festival to have a retrospective of his films. He has headed the jury at the National Film Awards and many international film festivals.
Apart from his films, Adoor's major contribution towards introducing a new cinema culture in Kerala was the constitution of the first Film Society in Kerala, "Chitralekha Film Society". He also took active part in the constitution of "Chitralekha," Kerala's first Film Co-operative Society for film production. These movements triggered a fresh wave of films, called "art films," by directors like G Aravindan, PA Becker, KG George, Pavithran, and Raveendran. At a time this movement was so strong that even popular cinema synthesised with art cinema to create a new genre of films.Bharat Gopi starred as hero 4 times in his ventures.
Style and trademarks
Adoor has been known as a director who completely dictates every fine detail of his films. On the performance of actors in his movies, he stated that - "It is not the artist's job to do the detailing. I do not want different interpretations of roles that may clash with each other. It has to be absolutely unified." He normally does not encourage his crew to read the script or even the stories. The actors are told at the time of shooting about the role and the scenes before conducting several rehearsals. According to Adoor "[i]n movies, the actor is not performing to the audience like the stage actor. Here they are acting for me. I am the audience and I will decide whether it is correct or not, enough or not." 
Awards and milestones
Some of the awards Gopalakrishnan has won for his films include:
- 2013 - Kerala Sahitya Akademi Award C. B. Kumar Endowment for Cinema yum Samskaravum (Essay)
- 2010 - Honorary Doctorate [D.Litt] from University of Kerala
- 2006 - Padma Vibhushan — Second highest civilian award from Government of India 
- 2004 - Dadasaheb Phalke Award — Lifetime Achievement Award in Film awarded by the Government of India
- 1984 - Padma Shri — Fourth highest civilian award from Government of India 
- 1984 - Legion of Honour — French order, the highest decoration in France
- National Film Awards — Various categories for Swayamvaram, Kodiyettam, Elippathayam, Mukhamukham, Anantaram, Mathilukal, Vidheyan, Kathapurushan, Nizhalkkuthu and Naalu Pennungal
- Kerala State Film Awards: — Various categories for Kodiyettam, Elippathayam, Mukhamukham, Anantaram, Vidheyan and Oru Pennum Randaanum
- International Film Critics Prize (FIPRESCI) — won consecutively for six feature films (Mukhamukham, Anantaram, Mathilukal, Vidheyan, Kathapurushan and Nizhalkkuthu)
- London Film Festival — Sutherland Trophy — in 1982 for Elippathayam
- British Film Institute Award — Most Original Imaginative Film of 1982 — Elippathayam
- Commandeur of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by French Government (2003)
- Lifetime achievement award at Cairo International Film Festival.
National Film Awards (Detailed):
Kerala State Film Awards (Detailed):
Best Screen Play
Best Documentary Film
Best Short Film
Best Book on Cinema
A retrospective of his films was conducted in
Adoor also worked in several respected posts in the film fraternity. He was a member of Sivaramakarath committee formed by the Government of India for framing a national film policy. He was a national film award committee member in 1974. He was a member of jury in Venice, Singapore, Hawaii and Delhi international film festivals. He was the chairman of International Film Festival of Kerala in 1999. He headed the National Film Development Corporation in the years 1980–1983. He was the director of Pune Film and Television Institute. In the years 1975–1977, he was a member of the advisory board for National Film Archives, Pune.
|1965||A Great Day||20 mins||Short fiction|
|1966||A Day at Kovalam||30 mins||Documentary|
|1967||The Myth||50 Seconds||Short fiction||Merit Certificate, Expo-67, Montreal|
|1968||Danger at Your Door-step||20 mins||Documentary|
|1968||And Man created||8 mins||Documentary|
|1968||Manntharikal (Grains of Sand)||20 mins||Documentary|
|1969||Towards National STD||20 mins||Documentary|
|1969||A Mission of Love||30 mins||Documentary|
|1966||Your Food||60 mins||Documentary|
|1970||Pratisandhi (The Impasse)||55 mins||Docu-drama|
|1971||Romance of Rubber||30 mins||Documentary|
|1972||Swayamvaram (One's Own Choice)||125 mins||Feature film||Madhu, Sharada, Bharath Gopi, Thikkurissy Sukumaran Nair, K. P. A. C. Lalitha||National Awards for Best Film, Best Director, Best Actress and Best Cinematographer. Entered into the 8th Moscow International Film Festival.|
|1973||Kilimanooril Oru Dasalakshadhipati (A Millionaire is Born)||20 mins||Documentary|
|1974||Guru Chengannur||17 mins||Documentary|
|1975||Past in Perspective||20 mins||Documentary|
|1977||Kodiyettam (Ascent)||128 mins||Feature film||Bharath Gopi, K. P. A. C. Lalitha, Thikkurissy Sukumaran Nair, Adoor Bhavani, Aziz||National Awards for Best Feature Film in Malayalam and Best Actor|
|1978||Four Shorts on Family Planning||16 mins||Documentary|
|1980||Chola Heritage||20 mins||Documentary|
|1981||Elippathayam (Rat-Trap)||121 mins||Feature film||Karamana Janardanan Nair, Sharada, Jalaja, Rajam K. Nair, Soman||Sutherland Trophy at 1982 London Film Festival|
National Awards for Best Feature Film in Malayalam and Best Audiography
|1984||Mukhamukham (Face to Face)||107 mins||Feature film||Ganga, Balan K. Nair, Karamana Janardanan Nair, Kaviyoor Ponnamma, Ashokan, K. P. A. C. Lalitha||FIPRESCI Prize, New Delhi, National Awards for Best Director, Best Screenplay and Best Audiography|
|1985||Eau/Ganga (Ganges-Water)||140 mins||Documentary||Grand Prize, Cinema du reel, Paris|
|1987||Anantaram (Monologue)||125 mins||Feature film||Mammootty, Ashokan, Shobana, Balan K. Nair, Bahadoor||FIPRESCI Prize, Karlovy Vary. National awards for best director, best screenplay, and best audiography|
|1990||Mathilukal (The Walls)||117 mins||Feature film||Mammootty, Murali, Thilakan, K. P. A. C. Lalitha (Voice), Karamana Janardanan Nair||FIPRESCI prize, Venice, UNICEF Film Prize, Venice, OCIC Prize, Amiens. National Award for best director, best actor, best regional film and best audiography|
|1993||Vidheyan (The Servile)||112 mins||Feature film||Mammootty, Tanvi Azmi, M.R. Gopakumar, Sabitha Anand||Feature FIPRESCI and Special Jury Prize, Singapore. Interfilm Jury Prize, Mannheim. Netpac prize, Rotterdam. National Award for best actor and best regional film|
|1995||Kathapurushan (The Man of the Story)||107 mins||Feature film||Viswanathan, Mini Nair, Narendra Prasad, Aranmula Ponnamma, Urmila Unni||FIPRESCI Prize, National award for the best film|
|1995||Kalamandalam Gopi||43 mins||Documentary|
|2002||Nizhalkuthu (Shadow Kill)||90 mins||Feature film||Oduvil Unnikrishnan, Sukumari, Murali, Nedumudi Venu, Jagathy Sreekumar, Narain||FIPRESCI, Mumbai. National award for best regional film|
|2005||Kalamandalam Ramankutty Nair||73 mins||Documentary|
|2007||Dance of the Enchantress||72 mins||Documentary|
|2007||Naalu Pennungal (Four Women)||105 mins||Feature film||Nandita Das, Kavya Madhavan, Geetu Mohandas, Padmapriya, Manju Pillai, Murali, Mukesh, Manoj K. Jayan||National Award for best director|
|2008||Oru Pennum Randaanum (A Climate for Crime)||115 mins||Feature film||Nedumudi Venu, Manoj K. Jayan, Jagadish, Vijayaraghavan, Indrans, Ravi Vallathol, Praveena||Kerala State award for best director 2009|
|2016||Pinneyum||Feature film||Dileep, Kavya Madhavan, Vijayaraghavan, Indrans, Ravi Vallathol, Srinda Ashab|
- Gautaman Bhaskaran (2010). Adoor Gopalakrishnan: A Life in Cinema. New Delhi: Penguin Books India.
- Lalit Mohan Joshi, C. S. Venkiteswaran (2006). A Door to Adoor. London: South Asian Cinema Foundation.
- M. F. Thomas, ed. (1986). Adoorinte Lokam (in Malayalam). Calicut, India: Mulberry.
- M. F. Thomas, ed. (2005). Adoorinte Chalachithrayathrakal (in Malayalam). Trivandrum, India: Sign Books.
- Akbar Kakkattil (2006). Varoo, Adoorilekku Pokam (Interview with Adoor Gopalakrishnan) (in Malayalam). Kottayam, India: DC Books.
- B. Sreeraj. Adoorinte Sarga Yathra (in Malayalam). India.
- R. Pavithran. Kazhchayile Kana Thalangal (in Malayalam). India.