Bharat Ka Mangal Abhiyan Essay Definition

Mars Mission: India creates history as Mangalyaan successfully enters Mars orbit in first attempt

Agencies

Updated: Sep 24, 2014, 12.34 PM IST

NEW DELHI: Creating history, ISRO's Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) on Wednesday successfully entered the orbit of the red planet. With this, India has become the first nation in the world to have entered the Mars orbit in the first attempt. ISRO's MOM is also the cheapest such mission till now.

European, US and Russian probes have managed to orbit or land on the planet, but after several attempts.

At 7.17 AM, the 440 Newton Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) sizzled with life as it burnt along with the thrusters to slow down the MOM spacecraft to be captured by the Red Planet.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi witnessed the historic moment from ISRO's centre. "MOM has met Mangal," Prime Minister Narendra Modi said annnouncing the mission's success, after nerve-wracking final moments at the command centre of Indian Space Research Organisation.





After successful launch PM Modi said, "India has become the first country to enter Mars orbit on a maiden mission." "History has been created today with India reaching Mars. ISRO has joined an elite group of countries to reach Mars," he said. "It was built indigenously, in a pan-Indian effort, stretching from Bangalore to Bhubhaneshwar, and Faridabad to Rajkot."

"Our budget is even lesser than a Hollywood blockbuster. These will go down as landmarks in history," Modi added.


Watch:'India has successfully reached Mars'



An elated Prime Minister patted the back of ISRO Chairman K Radhakrishnan and complimented the Indian space scientists for making space history.

With MOM successfully entering the red planet's orbit, ISRO on Wednesday also launched the MOM's official Twitter handle, @MarsOrbiter.

"What is red, is a planet and is the focus of my orbit?" tweeted the official handle of ISRO's Mars Orbiter. "I'll be back after breakfast. Good ol' sunlight. It's good for your battery," read the handle's second tweet.

Greeting NASA's Curiosity Rover, ISRO's Mars Orbiter tweeted, "Howdy @MarsCuriosity ? Keep in touch. I'll be around."

Curiosity Rover's Twitter handle, @MarsCuriosity, congratulated ISRO for the successful mission saying, "Namaste, @MarsOrbiter! Congratulations to @ISRO and India's first interplanetary mission upon achieving Mars orbit."
Mars Orbiter Insertion was carried out automatically by commands loaded onto the spacecraft after its velocity was slowed down from 22.1 km per second to 4.4 km per second to be captured by the Martian orbit.

The spacecraft had entered the Martian neighbourhood on Monday. At the time of MOM's orbital insertion, its signals took about 12 minutes and 28 seconds to travel to Earth for reception by NASA's Deep Space Network Stations in Canberra and Goldstone that relayed the data in real time to ISRO's station here.

The first sign of success in the final moments came when ISRO announced that burn of engines on India's Mars orbiter had been confirmed. "All engines of Mars orbiter are going strong. Burn confirmed," said ISRO signalling that history was in the making.

Igniting the main engine was critical as it had been lying in slumber for about 300 days and was woken up briefly for four seconds on Monday.

It was a make or break tricky manoeuvre as even the slightest error would have pushed the orbiter into deep depths of space.

Much of the spacecraft's manoeuvre took place behind Mars, as seen from Earth. This meant that from a point four minutes into the Mars Orbiter Insertion (MOI) burn until three minutes after the scheduled end of the manoeuvre, teams on Earth had no insight into the spacecraft's progress.





The orbiter will keep moving in an elliptical path at least for six months with its instruments sending their gleanings back home. The success in placing the spacecraft in the Martian orbit has made India the fourth space power after the United States, Europe and Russia to orbit or land on the Red Planet.

The Rs 450-crore Mangalyaan aims to study Mars' surface and mineral composition, and scan its atmosphere for methane, a chemical strongly tied to life on Earth.

India's MOM is the cheapest inter-planetary mission. It cost about a tenth of NASA's Mars mission Maven that entered the Martian orbit on September 22.

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Mangal Pandey Biography


Mangal Pandey was born on 19 July 1827 in the village of Nagwa in the Ballia district of Uttar Pradesh. A sepoy in the 34th Regiment of the Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) of the English East India Company, he entered the annals of Indian history for attacking his British officers, sparking off the First War of Indian Independence or as the British termed it, the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. At Barrackpore near Kolkata on 29 March 1857, Pandey attacked and injured his British sergeant, besides wounding an adjutant. A native soldier prevented him from killing the adjutant and the sergeant-major. He was arrested and sentenced to death. He was hanged on 8 April 1857.

The primary reason behind Mangal Pandey's behavior was because of a new type of bullet cartridge used in the Enfield P-53 rifle.

It was rumoured that the cartridge was greased with animal fat (pig and cow fat), which neither Hindus nor Muslims consumed. The cartridges had to be bitten off to remove the cover, which was detested by both the Hindu and Muslim soldiers in the army. The general feeling was that British intentionally did it. What added to the discontent was that the Commandant of the 34th BNI (Bengal Native Infantry) was a known Christian preacher.

There are many who have questioned whether Mangal Pandey was a brave martyr or one who attacked his officer under intoxication. The Bollywood movie, 'Mangal Pandey - The Rising' in 2005 was based on the life and times of Mangal Pandey. His life was also the subject of a stage play titled 'The Roti Rebellion'.

Facts and Information about Mangal Pandey



Born19 July 1827
ReligionHinduism
Place of BirthNagwa, Ballia district, Uttar Pradesh, India
NationalityIndian
Died8 April 1857 (aged 29), Barrackpore, Calcutta, West Bengal, India
Known for contribution asMutineer / Indian freedom fighter
Political CareerSepoy (soldier) in the 34th Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) regiment of the British East India Company


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Last Updated on : August 7, 2015





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